Nose bleed in dogs, also called epistaxis, could be caused by several factors. Nose bleeds can affect both dogs and cats. Some possible causes of nose bleeds includes:
- Coagulopathy. This occurs when the blood is not coagulating properly.
- Trauma to the nose
- Snake bite
- Cancer in an organ
Nose bleeds is an emergency situation that requires the prompt intervention of a veterinarian.
To diagnose nose bleed in dogs, the vet will perform several tests to determine the causal factor. The veterinarian will check to know if your dog has a low number of red blood cells which may indicate anemia.
Other tests that may be performed includes:
- Blood analysis: to determine whether the blood platelets are normal,
- Chemical blood profile
- Complete blood count
- Tests to check whether there is bone-marrow disease.
A coagulation profile will be conducted to determine whether the bleeding is caused by a coagulation problem. Your vet will also need to check whether there is sign of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A thyroid test will be performed, and some x-rays may be performed.
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You dog may need to be hospitalized for treatment if the cause of nose bleed is coagulopathy. The cause of the coagulating problem will need to be treated. Do not administer non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to your dog, or any other medication without first consulting your vet.
- If the cause is a clotting abnormality like hemophilia, a transfusion will be essential.
- If your dog is anemic but the bleeding is from a cause other than a coagulating problem, blood transfusion may be administered.
- Anti-inflammatory prednisone may be prescribed if a platelet problem is causing the bleeding.
- Antibiotics will be prescribed if the bleeding is caused by a bacterial infection
- Doxycycline is often prescribed to be given over a three- to six-week period if nose bleed is caused by an infectious disease.
- Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be prescribed if nose bleed is caused by bone-marrow tumor growth (neoplasia).
- Radiotherapy will be recommended if bleeding is caused by tumors in the nasal passages.
- Surgery may be performed if the bleeding is caused by a foreign body in the nasal passages that is hard to extract. If there is fungus in the nasal passages, surgery may help remove some of it to facilitate further treatment.
Your vet may prescribe a medication for specific fungus if nosebleed is caused by a fungal infection.
If hemorrhage is severe, your dog should be kept in a cage to lower blood pressure and enhance clotting. Use pet-approved nasal sprays. Keep your dog in a calm and anything excitable to prevent hemorrhage.
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